The town of Manáos, now Manaus, at the mouth of the Rio Negro, had a population between 1,000 and 1,500. [73][74] The arapaima, known in Brazil as the pirarucu, is a South American tropical freshwater fish, one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, with a length of up to 15 feet (4.6 m). After a journey of 600  km down the Napo River they reached a further major confluence, at a point near modern Iquitos, and then followed the upper Amazon, now known as the Solimões, for a further 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) to its confluence with the Rio Negro (near modern Manaus), which they reached on 3 June 1542. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? At first, navigation was principally confined to the main river; and even in 1857 a modification of the government contract only obliged the company to a monthly service between Pará and Manaus, with steamers of 200 tons cargo capacity, a second line to make six round voyages a year between Manaus and Tabatinga, and a third, two trips a month between Pará and Cametá. Stretching some 1,725 miles (2,780 km) from north to south at its widest point, the basin includes the greater part of Brazil and Peru, significant parts of Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, and a small area of Venezuela; roughly two-thirds of the Amazon’s main stream and by far the largest portion of its basin are within Brazil. It gathers its waters from 5 degrees north latitude to 20 degrees south latitude. The expedition reached the mouth of the Amazon on 24 August 1542, demonstrating the practical navigability of the Great River. Iquitos 16000 Peru. The Casiquiare is the largest river on earth that links two major river systems, a so-called bifurcation. After 170 kilometres (110 mi), the Coca River joined the Napo River (at a point now known as Puerto Francisco de Orellana); the party stopped for a few weeks to build a boat just upriver from this confluence. As it is flush with water, the river carries nutrient-rich soil down the river. They are best represented by the Marajoara culture. From that point, Quebrada Carhuasanta emerges from Nevado Mismi, joins Quebrada Apacheta and soon forms Río Lloqueta which becomes Río Hornillos and eventually joins the Río Apurímac. Amazon River - Amazon River - Physical features: The debate over the location of the true source of the Amazon and over the river’s precise length sharpened during the second half of the 20th century, as technological advances made it possible to explore deeper into the extremely remote locations of the Amazon’s headstreams and to more accurately measure stream lengths. The Amazon River has many tributaries. [31] The Tocantins River enters the southern portion of the Amazon delta. Note: the highlight does not go past the splitting of the river into the Rio Negro and the Rio Solimões Type: Vector Data . The Amazon River is widely considered the second-longest river in the world, though some claim that it might actually be the longest. After the confluence of Apurímac and Ucayali, the river leaves Andean terrain and is surrounded by floodplain. The first direct foreign trade with Manaus commenced around 1874. [31] The low river banks are interrupted by only a few hills, and the river enters the enormous Amazon rainforest. Amazon River. The Amazon River carries more water than any other river in the world. The Amazon River is located in South America within the Amazon Rainforest. The Amazon River (also named Rio Amazonas in Portuguese and Spanish) is the largest river in the world by the amount or volume of water it carries.It flows through the tropical forests of South America, mainly in Brazil. The Brazilian decree took effect on 7 September 1867. During the wet season, the Amazon River can reach over 190 kilometres (120 miles) in width. Navigation. Due to the vast amount of water as well as sediment that are deposited where the Amazon River meets the Atlantic Ocean, the color and salinity of the Atlantic Ocean are modified for nearly 200 miles (320 km) from the delta. In total, the Amazon River has approximately 1,100 tributaries out of which 17 are the biggest and most notable. Its population is limited to freshwater habitats, and, unlike other manatees, it does not venture into salt water. [3][4], In July 2008, the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) published a news article on their webpage, claiming that the Amazon River was 140 kilometres (87 mi) longer than the Nile. [51], The Amazon River and its tributaries are characterised by extensive forested areas that become flooded every rainy season. The original architect of this expansion was president Getúlio Vargas, with the demand for rubber from the Allied forces in World War II providing funding for the drive. [46], On the south bank, above the Xingu, a line of low bluffs bordering the floodplain extends nearly to Santarém in a series of gentle curves before they bend to the southwest, and, abutting upon the lower Tapajós, merge into the bluffs which form the terrace margin of the Tapajós river valley.[47]. [39] Since only four percent of the Amazon's hydropower potential has been developed in countries like Brazil,[40] more damming projects are underway and hundreds more are planned. [20], However, other scholars insist that the name is derived from the Native American word amassona, meaning “boat destroyer.”[21]. For much of its path, the Amazon … Then distances from Lago Junín to several potential source points in the uppermost Mantaro river were measured, which enabled them to determine that the Cordillera Rumi Cruz was the most distant source of water in the Mantaro basin (and therefore in the entire Amazon basin). Using the same techniques, the length of the Nile was calculated as 6,853 kilometres (4,258 mi), which is longer than previous estimates but still shorter than the Amazon. It has a series of major tributaries in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, some of which flow into the Marañón and Ucayali, and others directly into the Amazon proper. Deforestation has accelerated, especially south of the Amazon River and on the piedmont outwash of the Andes, as new highways and air transport facilities have opened the basin to a tidal wave of settlers, corporations, and researchers. Date of experience: February 2020. [49] This is not because the river would be too wide to bridge; for most of its length, engineers could build a bridge across the river easily. To achieve this level of development, the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon rainforest altered the forest's ecology by selective cultivation and the use of fire. This, although the government believed it could sustain millions, instead could sustain very few. This resulted in the development of "Operation Amazon", an economic development project that brought large-scale agriculture and ranching to Amazonia. Local trade along the river was carried on by the English successors to the Amazonas Company—the Amazon Steam Navigation Company—as well as numerous small steamboats, belonging to companies and firms engaged in the rubber trade, navigating the Negro, Madeira, Purús and many other tributaries,[31] such as the Marañón, to ports as distant as Nauta, Peru. [81] Some of the more notable ones are: Architectural, artistic and archaeological treasures, Post-colonial exploitation and settlement. [10][11] According to an earlier article on the webpage of the National Geographic, the Amazon's length was calculated as 6,800 kilometres (4,200 mi) by Brazilian scientist. Meanwhile, private individuals were building and running small steam craft of their own on the main river as well as on many of its tributaries. Beyond that, small boats frequently ascend to the Pongo de Manseriche, just above Achual Point in Peru. [54] In its lowermost section, the Amazon's depth averages 20 to 50 metres (66 to 164 ft), in some places as much as 100 metres (330 ft). In that same period, the Amazonas Company was increasing its fleet. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The Amazon is in the South America largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by most accepted definitions it is the second longest river in the world, after the Nile River.. Etymonline.Com. The Amazon Basin is the largest basin in the world, covering around 2,720,000 square miles (7,050,000 square kilometres). The Amazon River is the largest and longer river in the world; it’s also the main artery of the whole Amazon rainforest system and washes most of the villages and towns in the region. Some say that its effects on forest ecology and regional climate explain the otherwise inexplicable band of lower rainfall through the Amazon basin. A port city, it is the capital of the state of Para. Based on intelligence received from a captive native chief named Delicola, they expected to find food within a few days downriver by ascending another river to the north. The most distant source of the Amazon was thought to be in the Apurímac river drainage for nearly a century. Many settlements grew along the road from Brasília to Belém with the highway and National Integration Programme, however, the program failed as the settlers were unequipped to live in the delicate rainforest ecosystem. As there are no roads connecting Iquitos to the outside world, the only way to get there is by boat or airplane. At some points the river divides into anabranches, or multiple channels, often very long, with inland and lateral channels, all connected by a complicated system of natural canals, cutting the low, flat igapó lands, which are never more than 5 metres (16 ft) above low river, into many islands. [35] This situation changed dramatically during the 20th century. The area where the mouth of the Amazon River is located in eastern Brazil features a number of islands. This annual phenomenon forms the most extensive system of riverine flooded forests on Earth - a drastic revolution in the landscape that is vital for the efficient functioning of the Amazon River Basin. Since colonial times, the Portuguese portion of the Amazon basin has remained a land largely undeveloped by agriculture and occupied by indigenous people who survived the arrival of European diseases. Given the complexity of the river system, much of which is in remote areas, researchers have proposed several locations in Peru as its source. [33] During the rubber boom it is estimated that diseases brought by immigrants, such as typhus and malaria, killed 40,000 native Amazonians.[34]. More than half of the water in the Amazon downstream of Manacapuru is below sea level. The Amazon River boasts an impressive seasonal fluctuation of up to 15m. One of the world's largest species of snake, the anaconda spends most of its time in the water with just its nostrils above the surface. [16], The Atlantic has sufficient wave and tidal energy to carry most of the Amazon's sediments out to sea, thus the Amazon does not form a true delta. The Amazon runs through South America through some of the densest rainforests in the world, containing more biodiversity than anywhere on Earth. The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world and is about 4,000 miles (6400 km) long. Although considered a part of Amazonia by the Brazilian government and in popular usage, it is technically a separate system. The Amazon River is the longest river in the world, has the greatest volume of any river, and is located in South America. More than one-third of all known species in the world live in the Amazon rainforest,[65] a giant tropical forest and river basin with an area that stretches more than 5,400,000 square kilometres (2,100,000 sq mi). [80] The most important microbes in the Amazon River are Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Crenarchaeota. Note: the highlight does not go past the splitting of the river into the Rio Negro and the Rio Solimões Type: Vector Data . The candirú, native to the Amazon River, is a species of parasitic fresh water catfish in the family Trichomycteridae,[76] just one of more than 1200 species of catfish in the Amazon basin. It’s crisscrossed by thousands of rivers, including the powerful Amazon. The mouth of the Amazon river is located in Northern Brazil. Amazon River images: Check out Tripadvisor members' 1,878 candid pictures and videos of landmarks, hotels, and attractions in Amazon River. This ecosystem consists of a vast rain forest that is home to some of the world’s most unusual and exotic animals. A 2014 study by Americans James Contos and Nicolas Tripcevich in Area, a peer-reviewed journal of the Royal Geographical Society, however, identifies the most distant source of the Amazon as actually being in the Río Mantaro drainage. Aerial view of the Amazon River in Brazil. The ecological consequences of such developments, potentially reaching well beyond the basin and even gaining worldwide importance, have attracted considerable scientific attention (see Sidebar: Status of the World’s Tropical Forests). [68], The tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), also a dolphin species, is found both in the rivers of the Amazon basin and in the coastal waters of South America. Early human settlements were typically based on low-lying hills or mounds. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Actually, according to some researchers, it may even be the longest river in the world. It flows from its source, Nevado Mismi, in the mountains of Peru to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The rise of the Rio Negro starts in February or March and begins to recede in June. At Manacapuru, the Amazon's water level is only about 24 metres (79 ft) above mean sea level. Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu, one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish. The fresh water, being lighter, flows on top of the seawater, diluting the salinity and altering the colour of the ocean surface over an area up to 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi) in extent. Ultimately, they determined that the most distant point in the Mantaro drainage is nearly 80 km farther upstream compared to Mt. Actually, according to some researchers, it may even be the longest river in the world. A large-scale colonization program saw families from northeastern Brazil relocated to the "land without people" in the Amazon Basin. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The racial makeup of the city is 64% pardo (mulatto and mestizo) and 32% white. Most scientific publications have estimated its length to be around 6,400 kilometers (3,977 miles), and its width, depending on the season and location, can span from 1 … Also present in large numbers is the notorious piranha, an omnivorous fish that congregates in large schools and may attack livestock and even humans. The over 370 types of reptiles, 3,000 freshwater fishes, and 400 amphibians that live there, and these depend on the Amazon River for survival, according to WWF. Its most remote sources are found on the inter-Andean plateau, just a short distance from the Pacific Ocean. Πέρσαι" ("hamazakaran: 'to make war' in Persian"), where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make" (from which Sanskrit karma is also derived). 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