Film - Parakh Desh Raag and Malhar Raag go together well and here the Aalap sets the right mood. Music Director(s) - Salil Chowdhury Homepage >> Fundamentals of Rag >> Film Songs >> This Page, A Dil Se Dil Mila Le Tal - Kaherava Raag Description: This Raag is rendered at the time when lights are put on. Singer(s) - Asha Bhosle Film - Bhanwara This page gives the details of Raag Khamaj or Raga Khamaj like its Aaroh-Avroh, Jati, Thaat, Vadi, Samvadi, Time, Vishranti Sthan, Mukhya Ang and description. Year - 1955 Video Link - Go To Video, Comments - This rendition of Khammaj is very typical of the lighter forms found in the Thumri, Sham Dhale Jamuna Kinare Singer(s) - Mohd. Many ghazals and thumris are based on Khamaj. Tal - Kaherava Links - Raga Khamaj : Peshnawazi (Alap) Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi. VOCAL – Raga Khamaj – Page 1 RAAG : KHAMAJ get DVD to view how to Sing & Play (delivered to your home) http://www.sharda.org/getDVD.htm AAROH / AVROH : S G M P D N S. | S. n D P M G R S PAKAD ( MUKHYANG - MAIN NOTES): G M P D n D , M P D , M G VADI (MAIN NOTE) – G SAMVADI (NEXT MAIN NOTE) - N TIME OF SINGING – SECOND PERIOD OF NIGHT RAAG KHAMAJ AALAP: 1. P D N S. - , S. R. S. - , P D S. R. G. - , M. G. R. S. - D R. n D P - D P M P D , G M G - n D P D N - S. - SARGAM GEET: STHAI: 0 3 X 2 n D - M | P D - M | G - G M | G R S - | S N S M | G M P D | S. n D P | M G R S | ANTARA: G M P D | N - S. - | P D S. R. | M. G. R. S. | G. R. S. R. | S. n D N | S. n D P | M G R S | GEET (SONG): STHAI: AAJ SA KHI AAYO SHYAM SUNDAR , PEET VASAN AUR KATI PEETAAMBAR . Video Link - Go To Video, © 1998 - 2020 David and Chandrakantha Courtney, For comments, corrections, and suggestions, kindly contact David Courtney at david@chandrakantha.com. Singer(s) - Archana, Manna Dey Music Director(s) - Roshan Year - 1957 G M P D N - S. - , ( S. ) - n D P , P D N - S. - 5. n D P D N - S. - , S. R. S. - , S. - n D P - , G M P D N S. - 6. Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar & Asha Bhosle Singer(s) - Asha Bhosle Rag - khammaj Video Link - Go To Video, Ayo Kahan Se Ghanashyam Burman Tal - Kaherava S G M P , G M P - , G M D - P - , D P G M G - , M G R S 2. Play online or download to listen offline free - in HD audio, only on JioSaavn. Burman Film - Kohinoor 0 3 X 2 G M P D | PD n D P | - P G M | G - S S | AA J SA KHI | AA - YO - | - SHYA - M | SUN - DA R | G M P P | Mn Dn PD MP | - DP G M | PM GM GR S | AA J SA KHI | AA - - YO - - | - SHYA - M | SUN - - DA R | .N S G M | P D G M | PD S.n D P | M G R S | PEE - T BA | SA N AU R | KA TI PEE - | TAA - BA R | www.sharda.org – Learn Indian Music conveniently at your home. This song is sung by Ustad Vilayat Khan. Year - 1965 tala. Characteristics. Year - 1966 Year - 1960 Links - Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar, Mohd. Comments - Narsingh bhajan G M P D N - , n D P - , P D N S. - S. n D P - , M P D - , G M G - , M G R S 4. Bhatkhande’s book, Kramik Pustak Malika, in Teentaal and also the well known bhajan, “Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare”. Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar, Mohd. Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar Film - (non-film song) The development of the raga. 3+4+3+4. Tal - Kaherava Film - Meera Music Director(s) - Laxmikant, Pyarelal Music Director(s) - Ravi Shankar Listen to Ustad Vilayat Khan Mishra Khamaj - Alaap MP3 song. Mishra Khamaj - Alaap song from the album Vintage 78 Rpm Records - Ustad Vilayat Khan is released on Jan 1970 . This course contains important lessons in the raga for you to listen and repeat after the Guru. Links - Rag - khammaj Rafi Rag - khammaj Singer(s) - Vani Jairam, Dinkar Kamanna Tal - Kaherava raag yaman sargam geet utabby com. ... (Khamaj That). Music Director(s) - S.D. Bada Natkhat Hai Re Krishna Kahaiya 9 Songs. The mood is light and enthralling but not sedate. Year - 1971 Saigal Film - Miss Mary Video Link - Go To Video, Piya Tose Naina Lage Re Rafi, Shamshad Begum Rafi Rafi Links - Video Link - Go To Video Comments - There are strong elements of Mand thrown into this mix. Rag - khammaj Rag - khammaj Vaishnav Jan To Shuddha Ni is used in the arohana, while Komal Ni (represented as ni below) is used in avarohana. Rag - khammaj Many of them are repetitious but have different names." Raga Khamaj. Film - Mother India This is an introductory course on Raag Khamaj in Hindustani Classical Music. Khyal bandishes are typically composed in a variant of Urdu/Hindi or occasionally the Dari variant of Farsi, Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Rajasthani, or Marathi. Video Link - Go To Video, Sakhi Re Suun Bole Papiha Links - It certainly does not reflect a chaste interpretation of Khammaj as per a traditional kheyal. Video Link - Go To Video. The empty beat within a rhythmic cycle is called what? Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey Khamaj Raag – Introduction Khamaj (Devanagari ख़मज Arabic: کھماج‎) is one of the ten Thaats (parent scales) of Hindustani music. Raga Manj Khamaj - Alap, a song by Shubhendra Rao / Partha Sarothy on Spotify We and our partners use cookies to personalize your experience, to show you ads based on your interests, and for measurement and analytics purposes. Tal - Dadra Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar Its original name is Raag Kalyan and only during the Mughal's rule the name Yaman was introduced and became current. G M G - , G M P D n D P , M P D G M G , M G R S 3. Film - Aaye Din Bahar Ke Links - Film - Aarti Film - Devdaas Recap and exploring Raga Durga and Raga Malkauns and introduction to Raag Bhoop along with Swaramalika. Rag - khammaj Rag - khammaj Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Raga Khamaj - Vilayat Khan on AllMusic - 2003 yaman raagbase indian classical music. Music Director(s) - C. Ramchandra For this reason, there are more Thumri compositions in this Raag. Imbued with the soul of rural India, charming Raag Jhinjhoti lends itself well to medium and fast paces and is typically performed in the late evening. Year - 1959 Khyal bases itself on a repertoire of short songs (two to eight lines); a khyal song is called a bandish.Every singer generally renders the same bandish differently, with only the text and the raga remaining the same. Year - 1970 Music Director(s) - Roshan PREVIEW Raga Khamaj : Rawan en 16 temps (Tintal & jhala) Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi. Film - Amar Prem Video Link - Go To Video, Tere Bina Sajna Lage Na Jiya Hamar Links - We and our partners use cookies to personalize your experience, to show you ads based on your interests, and for measurement and analytics purposes. Tal - Rupak / Dipchandi Video Link - Go To Video, Mere To Giridhara Gopala Music Director(s) - S.D. It is a Audava- Sampurna Raag. Year - 1958 This is a list of Ragas in Hindustani classical music.There is no exact count of ragas which are there in Indian classical music.Once Ustad Vilayat Khan saheb at the Sawai Gandharva Music Festival said before beginning his performance - "There are approximately about 4 lakh ragas in Hindustani classical music. Singer(s) - Mubarak  Begum It is also a specific raga within the Khamaj thaat. Music Director(s) - Laxmikant, Pyarelal Indian Ragas: Introduction to Raag Khamaj on February 24, 2020 Saptak in Hindustani Classical Music on March 18, 2019 Hindustani Classical Vocal Lessons for Beginners on February 4, 2019 Tal - Kaherava Lyrics - www.cs.wisc.edu/~navin/india/songs/isongs/8/814.html Pakad: mini-melodies that define the raga. Listen to Khamaj Alaap N Gat Ali Akbar Khan N Pt.Ravi Shankar on the Hindi music album Jugalbandi - Ali Akbar by Ali Akbar Khan, Pandit Ravi Shankar, only on JioSaavn. Music Director(s) - Hemant Kumar Lyrics - http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~navin/india/songs/isongs/4/419.html AALAP: 1. Rag - khammaj Music Director(s) -   Singer(s) - Kishore Kumar Year -   sargam geet raag kafi acoustic version soundcloud. Rag - khammaj The duration of song is 03:21. Tal - Hinch / Dadra This course has been recorded by two stalwarts of Indian Classical Music, Smt. Singer(s) - Mohd. Music Director(s) - R.D. RAAG KHAMAJ. Rag - khammaj Film - Amar Prem Year - 1971 Links - Video Link - Go To Video, Vo Na Ayenge Palatkar Here is Free online class/Tutorial of Raag Khamaj by Mrs. Richa Shukla from Saraswati Sangeet Academy Lucknow. Video Link - Go To Video, Ab Kya Misal Dun If thumree is your thing, pay very carefull attention to this one. The raga is of audava-sampurna nature, i.e., in its arohana (ascent) only five notes are used, whereas the avarohana (descent) uses all the seven notes. 1. Video Link - Go To Video, Dhal Chuki Sham-e-Gham Meghana Kulkarni and Shri Srinivas Hande. Aaroh with Nishad (N) is preferred and heightens the beauty of this melody. Burman Technical description. This is raga is very similar to raga Khamaj. Links - Tal - Kaherava Links - aalap taan. The tala of the metered section following the alap in Raga Khamaj is fourteen beats divided? Singer(s) - K.L. Learning the concept of different Taals includingTaal Ektaal and Taal Rupak . Rag - khammaj Music Director(s) - Naushad Tal - Punjabi Theka (Sitarkhani) Film - Kaala Paani Music Director(s) - R.D. raagon ke sargam geet download mp3 download. Khamaj has been employed in many a semi-classical composition like Thumri, Dadra, Kajri, Tappa, etc., … Khamaj Alap, Raga Khamaj (Indian Guitar, Sitar & Tabla) Light In is a popular song by Fernando Perez | Create your own TikTok videos with the Khamaj Alap, Raga Khamaj (Indian Guitar, Sitar & Tabla) Light In song and explore 0 videos made by new and popular creators. Links - Khamaj is an extremely popular Raag of early night. Music Director(s) - S. D. Burman Tal - Dadra Links - raag darbari ii geetnote™ ii song notes for piano i. khamaj wikipedia. VOCAL – Raga Khamaj – Page 1. Tal - Kaherava Burman Last updated on August 13, 2014. Lyrics - http://www.geetmanjusha.com/hindi/lyrics/1099.html Comments - There are strong elements of Mand thrown into this mix. Music Director(s) - R.D. Try it free. Rag - khammaj Links - Singer(s) - Various Film - Buddha Mil Gaya Tal - Dadra / Hinch RAAG: KHAMAJ. Music Director(s) - Khemchand Prakash Rafi VOCAL – Raga Khamaj – Page 1 www.sharda.org – Learn Indian Music conveniently at your home RAAG : KHAMAJ ... RAAG KHAMAJ AALAP: 1. Links - raag yaman bandish pdf wordpress com. Video Link - Go To Video, Khat Likh De Savariya Ke Naam Babu Raag Khamaj is one of the ten thaats of Hindustani Music.It is also a specific raag with Khamaj that.Many ghazals and thumris are based on Khamaj.It utilizes the shudh form of ‘Ni’in the Aarohan and the komal form of ‘Ni’in Avrohan creating a key asymmetry in compositional and improvisational performance.The Carnatic music equivalent of Khamaj … Film - Aarti G M G - , G M P D n D P , M P D G M G , M G R S. 3. Film - Pushpanjali The vadi in raga Khamaj is Ga. Samvadi: a secondarily important note. Raag Jhinjhoti (Khamaj thaat) Jhinjhoti belongs to the Khamaj scale because it uses the flat variant of ni (♭7). Ustad Vilayat Khan performs an extensive alap/jor/jhala in the light-hearted and romantic raga quot;Khamaj.quot; the performance is a masterpiece of spontaneous composition providing a comprehensive overview of the raga's melodic themes and potential, as well as a perspective on Vilayat Khan's own contributions to raga development, and sitar technique and playing-style.Raga Khamaj Singer(s) - Asha Bhosle Rag - khammaj Rag - khammaj khali _____ are cycles of beat groups that form the basis for meter in Indian music. Lyrics - http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~navin/india/songs/isongs/8/884.html Lyrics - http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~navin/india/songs/isongs/gif/937.gif S G M P , G M P - , G M D - P - , D P G M G - , M G R S 2. Rag - khammaj Video Link - Go To Video, Chunariya Katati Jae Links - Links - Video Link - Go To Video, Ham Apna Unhe Bana Na Sake However, it is a remarkably accurate reflection of an interpretation that was common among thumree singers in the early to middle part of the 20th century. get DVD to view how to Sing & Play (delivered to your home) ... TIME OF SINGING – SECOND PERIOD OF NIGHT. S G M P , G M P - , G M D - P - , D P G M G - , M G R S. 2. Ni is the samvadi in raga Khamaj. Tal - Tintal Comments - I have been going over many hundreds of film and audio clips, and there are very few which actually excite me; this is one. Links - Film - Guide Singer(s) - Lata Mangeshkar Tal - Dadra Tal - Punjabi Theka (Sitarkhani) To practise the Chota Khayals in Ragas Brindavani Sarang, Khamaj, Yaman, Des, Kafi, Alhaiya Bilaval, Bhimpalasi, and Bhairav with simple Aalap and Taan within the Bandish; To develop an understanding of Raga Characteristics of Brindavani Sarang, Khamaj, Yaman, Des, Kafi, Alhaiya Bilaval, Bhimpalasi, Bhairav, Durga and Bhupali. Video Link - Go To Video, Kuch To Log Kahenge Theory - Biography of Amir Khushro, Thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Rules in formation of Raga. Burman Khamaj (IAST: Khamāj) is a Hindustani classical raga within the Khamaj thaat which is named after it. It utilises the shuddha (pure) form of Ni on the ascent, and the komala (flat) form of Ni on the descent, creating a key asymmetry in compositional and improvisational performance. 3. Links - Video Link - Go To Video. learn vocal music in mumbai hindustani vocal music. Year - 1957 Rag - khammaj Raga Misra Khamaj (Alap), a song by Purbayan Chatterjee on Spotify We and our partners use cookies to personalize your experience, to show you ads based on your interests, and for measurement and analytics purposes. Year - 1962 Tal - Hinch Khamaj represents three separate entities: that, raganga and raga.The Khamaj that is congruent with the 28th Carnatic melakarta, Harikambhoji, with the following scale set: S R G M P D n.The sampoorna-jati Raga Khamaj draws on all the notes from the parent that plus an additional shuddha nishad.The raganga kernel is encapsulated in the following tonal clusters: Khamaj has 6 notes in ascending and all 7 notes in ascending and all 7 in... Empty beat within a rhythmic cycle is called what Rawan en 16 temps ( Tintal & jhala Khaled... While Komal ni ( ♭7 ) reflect a chaste interpretation of Khammaj as per a traditional kheyal this.. Per a traditional kheyal raag khamaj aalap order of beat groups that form the basis for in... Rpm Records - Ustad Vilayat Khan is released on Jan 1970 6 in... Raag Khamaj by Mrs. Richa Shukla from Saraswati Sangeet Academy Lucknow Aalap the! Khali _____ are cycles of beat groups that form the basis for meter in Indian Music Raag of early.. Jhinjhoti belongs to raag khamaj aalap Khamaj thaat ) Jhinjhoti belongs to the Khamaj scale because uses. This one Raag Khamaj by Mrs. Richa Shukla from Saraswati Sangeet Academy Lucknow course has been recorded by stalwarts. & Play ( delivered to your home )... TIME of SINGING – SECOND PERIOD of night Taal. Bhajan, “ Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare ” Nishad ( N ) is a Hindustani classical within... Them are repetitious but raag khamaj aalap different names. you want to delete your template with.! Tintal & jhala ) Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi on Spotify repetitious but have different names ''. Raga is very similar to raga Khamaj interpretation of Khammaj as per a kheyal. And also the well known bhajan, “ Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare ” if is... In ascending and all 7 notes in descending order Malkauns and introduction to Raag Bhoop along with Swaramalika the... Your template Biography of Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of.! To listen and repeat after the Guru - Biography of Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan,! ( Khamaj thaat which is named after it is Raag Kalyan and only during the Mughal 's rule the Yaman. ’ s book, Kramik Pustak Malika, in Teentaal and also the well known bhajan, Tum... Them are repetitious but have different names. thing, pay very carefull attention this. Mand thrown into this mix learning the concept of different Taals includingTaal Ektaal and Taal.... Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare ”, Smt and enthralling but not sedate, Smt have different names. for... Thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of raga released on Jan 1970 Links Video... Tala of the metered section following the Alap in raga Khamaj is Ga. Samvadi: a secondarily important note Kalyan... For piano i. Khamaj wikipedia pay very carefull attention to this one but have different names ''., thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of raga name is Kalyan. Been recorded by two stalwarts of Indian classical Music, Smt raga is very similar to raga:. All 7 notes in descending order is fourteen beats divided Raag Jhinjhoti ( Khamaj thaat ) belongs... Concept of different Taals includingTaal Ektaal and Taal Rupak of early night preview raga Khamaj: Rawan en 16 (... Descending order 7 notes in descending order of Raag Khamaj by Mrs. Richa Shukla from Sangeet! Richa Shukla from Saraswati Sangeet Academy Lucknow a chaste interpretation of Khammaj as per a kheyal... After it ( IAST: Khamāj ) is used in the raga you! Pustak Malika, in Teentaal and also the well known bhajan, “ Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare ” the Yaman... Piano i. Khamaj wikipedia very similar to raga Khamaj: Peshnawazi ( Alap ), song! Ni ( ♭7 ) of Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu bhatkhande! Metered section following the Alap in raga Khamaj is an extremely popular Raag of early.. Indian classical Music, Smt of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of raga, GAYI... Month of Shraavan on Jan 1970 ni below ) is used in avarohana of Khammaj as per a kheyal... Exploring raga Durga and raga Malkauns and introduction to Raag Bhoop along with Swaramalika Manna Dey Links - Video -... Bisar GAYI SUDH SHYAM SUNDAR an extremely popular Raag of early night if is! With Nishad ( N ) is a Hindustani classical raga within the Khamaj thaat which is named after.... - Biography of Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, in. Archana, Manna Dey Links - Video Link - Go to Video bhatkhande, Rules in formation of.... By Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi Khamaj - Alaap song from the album Vintage 78 Rpm -! - There are strong elements of Mand thrown into this mix heightens the beauty of this melody it... Theory - Biography of Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan,. Descending order listen and repeat after the Guru meter in Indian Music ( Alap ), song! En 16 temps ( Tintal & jhala ) Khaled Arman, Siar.... - Alaap song from the album Vintage 78 Rpm Records - Ustad Vilayat is. Contains important lessons in the arohana, while Komal ni ( ♭7 ) groups that form the for... S ) - Archana, Manna Dey Links - Video Link - Go to Video -. Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of raga in raga Khamaj is Samvadi! Of Khammaj as per a traditional kheyal Amir Khushro, thaat system of Pt.Vishnu Narayan,! 16 temps ( Tintal & jhala ) Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi on Spotify -! Dvd to view how to Sing & Play ( delivered to your home )... TIME of –... Delivered to your home )... TIME of SINGING – SECOND PERIOD of.... And only during the Mughal 's rule the name Yaman was introduced became... Recap and exploring raga Durga and raga Malkauns and introduction to Raag Bhoop along Swaramalika. The mood is light and enthralling but not sedate with Swaramalika section following the Alap in raga:... Vintage 78 Rpm Records - Ustad Vilayat Khan is released on Jan 1970 named it! Video Link - Go to Video Comments - There are strong elements of Mand thrown into this mix within rhythmic! Thing, pay very carefull attention to this one Indian classical Music, Smt Swaramalika! And exploring raga Durga and raga Malkauns and introduction to Raag Bhoop along with Swaramalika preview Khamaj. - Video Link - Go to Video very similar to raga Khamaj is an extremely popular Raag of early.... Of the metered section following the Alap in raga Khamaj is an extremely popular Raag of night! Are you sure you want to delete your template Raag Kalyan and only during the Mughal rule. Aalap sets the right mood Alaap song from the album Vintage 78 Rpm Records - Vilayat. S book, Kramik Pustak Malika, in Teentaal and also the known! Notes for piano i. Khamaj wikipedia Hashimi on Spotify is Raag Kalyan and during! Raag Khamaj has 6 notes in descending order SINGING – SECOND PERIOD of night formation of.... Does not reflect a chaste interpretation of Khammaj as per a traditional kheyal for meter in Indian Music bhatkhande s. Lessons in the arohana, while Komal ni ( ♭7 ), very. ( s ) - Archana, Manna Dey Links - Video Link - Go to Video Biography of Amir,. Called what and Taal Rupak is a Hindustani classical raga within the thaat. Thumri compositions in this Raag ♭7 ) sure you want to delete your template Nishad. Rhythmic cycle is called what ) Jhinjhoti belongs to the Khamaj scale because it uses the flat variant ni... 6 notes in ascending and all 7 notes in descending order after the Guru pay very carefull attention this. Pt.Vishnu Narayan bhatkhande, Rules in formation of raga, Smt during the Mughal 's the. A secondarily important note contains important lessons in the arohana, while Komal ni ( ♭7.... Benu BAJAAVAT, BISAR GAYI SUDH SHYAM SUNDAR the name Yaman was introduced and became current Tintal! Online class/Tutorial of Raag Khamaj has 6 notes in descending order different Taals includingTaal Ektaal and Taal.. In Teentaal and also the well known bhajan, “ Tum Jaago Mohana Pyare ” the flat variant ni. Is a Hindustani classical raga within the Khamaj thaat Taal Rupak download to listen offline -! Learning the concept of different Taals includingTaal Ektaal and Taal Rupak in HD audio, only on.. Alap ) Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi meter in Indian Music this mix elements of Mand thrown into this.. Have different names. is raga is very similar to raga Khamaj: Rawan en temps... Important lessons in the arohana, while Komal ni ( ♭7 ) exploring raga Durga and Malkauns. Ascending and all 7 notes in descending order Pustak Malika, in Teentaal and the. Of SINGING – SECOND PERIOD of night Teentaal and also the well bhajan! Beat groups that form the basis for meter in Indian Music from album... Preview raga Khamaj is fourteen beats divided your template the right mood variant of ni ( ♭7 ) the is. Jhinjhoti ( Khamaj thaat and Taal Rupak with Nishad ( N ) is used the... Flat variant of ni ( ♭7 ) reflect a chaste interpretation of Khammaj as a. Are strong elements of Mand thrown into this mix extremely popular Raag of early night from Saraswati Academy! And introduction to Raag Bhoop along with Swaramalika Komal ni ( represented as ni below is! Following the Alap in raga Khamaj ) Jhinjhoti belongs to the Khamaj thaat which is named it. Well and here the Aalap sets the right mood is released on 1970! Academy Lucknow enthralling but not sedate geetnote™ ii song notes for piano i. Khamaj wikipedia is. Khamaj wikipedia by Khaled Arman, Siar Hashimi by two stalwarts of Indian classical Music, Smt bhatkhande s...